REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA
Geographical location. The Republic of Abkhazia is a state located in the north-western part of Transcaucasia. It is washed by the Black Sea. It borders Russia to the northwest and Georgia to the southeast.
The territory is 8,700 sq. km. The average length from north to south is 54 km, from west to east – 160 km. The length of the coastline is 214 km . Mountains occupy 64% of the territory. Forests cover 57% of the territory (oak, beech, hornbeam, chestnut, fir and spruce).
Natural resources. Abkhazia has reserves of coal (more than 5.3 million tons), peat, dolomite, marble, granite, limestone, gabbro-diabases, chalk, tuff, barite, lead, and various building materials.
The total area of Abkhazia’s land resources is 866.4 thousand hectares, agricultural land – 421.6 thousand hectares. Abkhazia occupies one of the first places in the world in terms of water availability: more than 1.7 million cubic meters of river flow per 1 sq. km of territory per year, the total length of 120 rivers is more than 5 thousand km (mainly rapid mountain streams, which is the potential for the development of small hydropower). 57% of the territory (497 thousand hectares) is covered with forest.
The climate is humid subtropical, the average temperature of January on the coast is +4o +7o C, in the mountains from +2o to -2o C, in July, respectively, +22o +24o C. Precipitation is 1300-2400 mm per year.
Abkhazia has a significant potential of recreational resources. About 200 boarding houses, rest homes, sanatoriums, hotels, children’s health centers are located in all climatic zones – from subtropical to alpine. There are a large number of thermal and mineral springs.
The official language is Abkhaz. Russian, along with Abkhaz, is recognized as the language of state and other institutions.
The state structure. The Republic of Abkhazia (Apsny) is a sovereign, democratic, legal state. The names Republic of Abkhazia and Apsny are equivalent.
On November 26, 1994, the Parliament of the Republic adopted the Constitution of the sovereign Abkhazian State, a subject of international law. Abkhazia is a presidential republic. The President is elected for a term of 5 years. Ministers are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.
State power is exercised on the basis of the division into legislative, executive and judicial.
The legislative branch of government is represented by the unicameral People’s Assembly – the Parliament of the Republic of Abkhazia (35 seats). Deputies are elected for a term of 5 years by direct vote.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. The President acts as a guarantor of the independence of the judiciary and is the head of the Council of Justice.
Local self-government bodies are not included in the system of state authorities.
The sovereignty of the Republic of Abkhazia was recognized by Russia, Venezuela, Nicaragua, Nauru, Vanuatu, Syria, the Republic of South Ossetia and the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.
Administrative division. The Republic of Abkhazia includes eight districts: Gagra, Gudauta, Sukhumi, Gulrypsh, Ochamchyrsky, Tkuarchalsky Galsky and Sukhum.
The capital is the city of Sukhum.
Population: 244 thousand people.
The monetary unit is the Russian ruble.